This stitch is used for simple sewing and gathering. It is worked from right to left and consists of small stitches of equal length. To gather fabric, begin on the right side of the fabric and sew two parallel lines of large running stitch. Finish each line off by winding the thread end around a pin. Pull both threads by applying even pressure to both ends of the line of sewing.
Back-stitch is useful for seams or tight corners where it is awkward to use a machine. Working from right to left, bring the needle out of the fabric and insert it a little way behind where the thread came out, then bring the needle forward the same distance in front of that point. The forward stitch will be double the length of the backward stitch. Continue in this way. making sure that you always insert the needle into the end of the last stitch so there are no gaps in the stitched line.
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Ladder stitch, also known as slip tacking, is useful for matching patterned fabric exactly and is worked on the right side of the fabric. Press the seam allowance onto the wrong side of one piece of fabric, then with right sides upwards, place this over the unfolded seam allowance of the second piece. Pin firmly in place. With a knotted thread starting under the fold, stitch up through the fabric and across the join into the bottom piece. Next, take the needle under the fabric for a little way, then back up ancfeacross the join into the folded edge again, between the two layers of fabric. Repeat these small stitches across the join for the length of the fabric.
Slip stitch is used to stitch down a folded edge, such as a hem, or to join two folded edges, as in a mitred corner. In one continuous movement, working from right to left, take a tiny stitch in the main fabric, close to the previous stitch; insert the needle into the fold — about 6mm (Kin) to the left — and bring it out to the front. Continue, alternately making a tiny stitch in the main fabric and a larger stitch inside the folded edge.