Is An Exercise Bike Good For Weight Loss

Type and Timing of Participation

There is generally a contract between game and practice injury rates across sports. The higher number of injuries in preseason practices and spring practices may be due to varying dynamics and focuses. Athletes may not be as conditioned and, therefore, not physically prepared for the intensity and demands of the sport. Also, preseason is a typical time for overloading the body. Players transition from little activity to long hours of participation. Finally, players may be playing with increased intensity in an effort to become a member of the team as this is often a time of trying out for the squad.38

Professional Sports

Professional athletes have the benefit of experience and training that leads to development of strength, power, skill, and control. Although participating in professional sports is widely considered an opportunity and a privilege, it comes with greater costs. Injury at the professional level often results in financial implications not considered at amateur levels. Due to the need to maximize their income during their brief careers, professional athletes are susceptible to overuse and overtraining because they often push through musculoskeletal injuries and limit their recovery times.


Many athletes participate in professional baseball, adding importance to the study of injury in this sport. The stress placed upon the upper extremity due to the biomechanics of the overhead throwing motion, excessive training, and demanding season schedule place baseball players, particularly pitchers, at great risk for injury. A majority of injuries in Major League Baseball are to the upper body.39-41 Shoulder injuries account for significant time on the injury/disabled list, but pitchers, specifically, were more likely to miss playing days due to elbow and wrist injuries.39

Lower body injuries have been reported to account for 30% to 50% of all injuries in baseball players.40 Although pitchers are more likely to sustain shoulder injury and greater time loss from elbow and groin injury, position players are more likely to sustain abdominal/groin and knee injuries.39 Time loss from muscle strain and hip labral tear is considerable.39


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The physical nature of football, coupled with the high-impact forces and brief, but intense, format culminates into a high-risk endeavor. During training camp, the overall rate of injury is 17.3/1000 AEs.42 Players were more likely to suffer injury during weeks 1 and 2 compared to 3 through 5. The injury rate is significantly higher during games than practices. The injury rate has been reported as 64.7/1000 AEs during games and 12.7/1000 AEs during practices.42 The most common types of injuries during training camp are knee sprain (10.84/1000 AEs during games and 2.12/1000 AEs during practices), hamstring strain (4.07/1000 AEs during games and 1.79/1000 AEs during practices), and contusions (12.47/1000 AEs during games and 0.92/1000 AEs during practices).42

Quarterbacks have a unique role in football because they throw the ball. Whereas most other positions suffer from lower body injuries, quarterbacks have a higher risk of shoulder injury. Kelly et al43 studied 1534 quarterback injuries using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS) and found a mean time loss of 22.1 days from acromioclavicular joint injuries and 14.1 days for shoulder contusions. Of these, 83.8% occurred during a game. Of all quarterbacks, 77.4% were injured during passing plays. Direct trauma was the predominant mechanism of injury, with less than 15% resulting from overuse.43

Another specific epidemiologic consideration is the effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on musculoskeletal injuries. An association between increased risk of injury with steroid use may exist. Horn et al45 surveyed a large sample of retired NFL players and found that steroid use during a professional football career may be associated with ligamentous and joint-related injuries. Significant association was found between anabolic steroid use and medial collateral ligament (MCL), ACL, meniscus, and ankle injury.44 Pressures to perform, even when injured, continue to emerge in professional sports, such as baseball and football. Investigations into the longterm effects of analgesics, oral and injectable, are being requested by former players who believe that playing injured and under the influence of medication may have caused long-term health consequences.45 Between 1997 and 2002, 31 Achilles tendon ruptures occurred in the NFL. Players generally took 9 to 12 months to return to play. Of the injured players, 32.3% never returned to play.46 On average, players who ruptured their Achilles tendon had more than a 50% reduction in power following the injury.46

Playing surface has been shown to influence the rate of knee injury in professional football. Participation on AstroTurf yields higher injury rates for knee sprains compared to natural grass. However, a recent meta-analysis of the effect of field type on injury in soccer players demonstrated that the risk of sustaining an injury on artificial turf may be lowered compared to natural grass.47 When comparing field type and position, backs on rushing plays and linemen on passing plays have shown to suffer a significantly higher rate of ACL sprains than other position players.48

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