The times of track and field and swimming events increase by in events lasting min, and by in events with a duration of
Although anaerobic glycolysis compensates for the reduction in aerobic capacity at extreme altitude see previous section, this response does not occur during maximal exercise because anaerobic metabolism also is greatly restricted. Human muscle biopsies have shown that intramuscular lactate levels are lower during maximal exercise in a hypobaric-hypoxic environment versus exhaustive exercise at sea level.
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The Benefits and Disadvantages of Training at Altitude
Strenuous endurance training at sea level increases VOmax. However, at altitude, VOmax increases slightly or not at all due to endurance training. But the response of endurance time to exhaustion at altitude is different; it improves greatly. When healthy young males cycled at VOmax, their endurance capacity increased after a -day stay at mft. In another investigation, treadmill running time to exhaustion at VOmax increased after days at the same elevation. Sedentary altitude acclimatization also increases submaximal endurance exercise performance at altitude, but usually has little or no effect on VOmax, as shown in table ..
Recent research suggests that training benefits occur when endurance athletes are exposed intermittently to altitude. However, disagreement exists on this point because other authorities believe based on several research studies, that training at altitude provides no or few benefits for sea-level competition beyond those derived by training at sea level. In contrast, there is little disagreement about the superiority of high-altitude natives and residents. The Mexico City Summer Olympics of provided an excellent example. The first five runners in themmi run were either natives or residents of altitude. Further evidence stems from the recent domination of long-distance events by Kenyan distance runners.
It is also important that you realize that training at sea level benefits sea-level exercise performance when combined with acclimatization living or sleep at moderate altitude. Two different research teams have reported that these strategies result in improved performance and physiological responses, such as increased VOmax and expanded red blood cell mass enhanced oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood.