Many inhaled substances contain, or are classified as, particulate matter; these include dust, acidic aerosols, tobacco smoke, wood smoke, pollen, bacteria, and sulfuric acid from sulfur-containing fuels. The types of particulates found in the air of any given city depend on human activities burning, type of fuels used and environmental factors wind direction and speed, thermal inversion layers. The effects of particulates on lung tissue are related to particle size, total particle mass, chemical composition, deposition patterns, oral versus nasal breathing, and the defense mechanisms of the lung. Larger particles – pm are deposited in the nasopharyngeal region and cause inflammation, congestion, and ulceration. The tracheobronchial region of the pulmonary system receives particles with a diameter of – pm; these stimulate bronchospasm, bronchial congestion, and bronchitis. Only the smallest particles pm reach the alveoli. Mucociliary transport and phagocytosis are employed for lung clearance after particles have been inhaled. Both
A Detroit factory worker wears a respirator to prevent the inhalation of fine particulates asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals have more hospital emergency room visits, and more severe respiratory symptoms, when particulate pollution levels increase.
No investigations to date have measured the effects of particulates on submaximal or maximal exercise performance, and only one early study included particle exposure in the research design. Inbefore human research review panels were prevalent at institutions, three healthy males inhaled aluminum dustJim average particle diameter three times, between brief periods of breathing clean air. The investigators concluded that bronchoconstriction and breathing frequency increased with each successive dose of aluminum dust.
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Aerosols the four previous substances CO, NO, SO, and fine particulates are primary pollutants, which exert their influence on humans exactly as they are issued from the source. This section marks the transition to three categories of secondary pollutants, which are formed by interactions of primary pollutants with other compounds, ultraviolet light, or with each other. Aerosols have been classified both as particulates and as a distinct pollutant category. They are considered separately in this section because they meet the criteria of a secondary pollutant; that is, they can be formed when sulfur oxides or nitrogen oxides react with photochemical products and airborne particles.
An aerosol is a suspension of ultramicroscopic solid or liquid particles in air or another gas; examples include smoke, fog, or mist. Thus, fine particulates see previous section may be inhaled in the form of an aerosol. Some aerosols are soluble and can enter the blood, resulting in effects not related to the pulmonary system of the body.
Numerous aerosol studies have involved exercise. The majority of these have investigated sulfate, sulfuric acid HSO, or nitrate aerosols. The sulfate aerosols arise from ammonia combining with HSO to form ammonium sulfate [NH]SO and ammonium bisulfate NHHSO. The nitrate aerosol most often studied is ammonium nitrate NHN O.
The sulfate aerosols NHSO and NHHSO apparently have no or little effect on pulmonary function measure or clinical symptoms of exercising normal and asthmatic test subjects. Inhalation of HSO aerosols during exercise, in contrast, appears to cause measurable changes in pulmonary function, despite the findings of early studies before to the contrary. Recently, Linn and colleagues exposed children to HSO aerosols during exercise, in two studies. The first involved subjects, aged to years, of whom had allergy or mild asthma. The acid dosepm HSO aerosol, pg/m did not affect the healthy children, but was positively correlated with clinical symptoms in the allergy/asthma subgroups. No changes were noted in spirometry measurements of lung function or perceived discomfort in either group. The second study exposed asthmatic volunteers, aged to years, to an HS aerosol slightly more concentrated than the one described above pg/m. Exercise-induced bronchospasm was observed at the end of three min exercise sessions. Additionally, evidence suggested that a subgroup of these children were susceptible to acid pollution for unknown reasons. Please note that neither study assessed maximal exercise performance.