TEE has increased imaging abilities tremendously through multiplane windows from the stomach and esophagus that provide high-resolution tomographic imaging views. TEE is used both in the awake patient and intraoperatively. A study of TEEs done at the Mayo Clinic over 5 years shows three major indications: (1) source of emboli, (2) native and prosthetic valve disease, and (3) endocarditis. For the intraoperative patient the most frequent applications are monitoring of cardiac function, intraoperative diagnosis, and assessment of postoperative results. Victims of trauma often are best evaluated with TEE because of its mobility, speed, and capacity for on-line interpretation.
Indications for TEE examination at the Mayo Clinic from November 1987 to November 1992 (5,441 procedures). Three major indications are source of embolism, native and prosthetic valve disease, and endocarditis. (SPAF = Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation trial). Isch = ischemic Cong = congestive, Dz = disease. (From Freeman WK, et al (eds): Transesophageal Echocardiography. Boston, Little, Brown. Â© 1994 by Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota. Used with permission.)