Mild enlargement of left ventricle (lower left heart border) with leftward bulging apex, enlarged aortic knob, and calcification in the aortic wall. These findings represent atherosclerotic disease and/or hypertension.
What are the cardinal signs of congestive heart failure on the chest x-ray?
‚ Cardiac enlargement
‚ Pulmonary arterial enlargement
‚ Peribronchovascular haziness and thickened septal lines representing interstitial edema
‚ Fuzzy air-space-filling disease representing alveolar edema
‚ Pleural effusion, especially on the right.
With early congestive failure, one may merely see mild cardiac and pulmonary arterial prominence and a perihilar haze‚ of early transudative pulmonary edema. The transudative edema of congestive failure tends to be quite mobile and accumulate in dependent portions of the chest; thus, it may appear to be entirely in the lower chest in the upright patient.