Who were Blalock and Taussig?

Helen B. Taussig and Alfred Blalock collaborated in establishing the Blalock-Taussig procedure in 1945. This subclavian-to-pulmonary artery anastomosis created a systemic-to-pulmonic shunt. This procedure established the first surgical treatment for blue babies‚ suffering from pulmonic stenosis or atresia, a previously fatal condition.

1Name the four features of tetralogy of Fallot.

Ventricular septal defect

Obstruction to right ventricular outflow.

Overriding of the aorta

Right ventricular hypertrophy.

Tetralogy of Fallot accounts for approximately 10% of all congenital heart lesions (including pediatric) and is the commonest cause of cyanotic disease presenting after 1 year of age. The degree of obstruction to pulmonary blood flow is the major factor in the clinical presentation.

1Is mitral valve prolapse a congenital heart disease?

Although some cases of mitral valve prolapse are associated with congenital heart diseases, mitral

valve prolapse itself is not due to a congenital malformation of the valve. Mitral valve prolapse results from various pathogenetic mechanisms affecting the mitral valve apparatus, of which myxomatous degeneration is the most frequent cause.

Are there alternatives to surgery for adults with congenital heart disease?

Catheter-based therapy is increasingly important in the treatment of congenital heart disease in adults. Balloon dilatation of congenital aortic stenosis, umbrella closure of atrial and ventricular septal defects, umbrella closure of patent foramen ovale, and occluder implantation for patent ductus arteriosus are all technically feasible.

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